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【转载】免疫细胞作战场景特写

更新时间:2018-02-09 点击数:1600

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免疫细胞作战场景特写

2018-02-09 


橙色的是细胞毒性T细胞(cytotoxic T cells),蓝色的是癌细胞


其中最主要有两类,一类是B细胞,这一类细胞实际上是二炮,发射导弹,对病菌感染进行抑制,对病菌进行清除,这是体液免疫。另外是代表性的T淋巴细胞,T细胞的发挥我们常说是细胞免疫。(以上动图就是T细胞杀死癌细胞的过程)



A macrophage (x18000), a human defense cell, seeking to engulf droplets of oil.

巨噬细胞 尝试吞噬油滴


A major component of the immune system, a helper t-cell is under attack by Hiv/ AIDS (blue)

辅助t细胞(白细胞)正被Hiv病毒(爱滋/蓝色)攻击


latecomers in immunesystem evolution, B-cells, like this specimen covered with bacteria, produce armies of anti-bodies whose sole purpose is to attack a single kind of pathogen.

B细胞(淋巴细胞)产生特定抗体针对单一病原体,图上B细胞被细菌覆着


Malaria protozoa have multiplied in two cells in a culture dish of red blood cells. One has burst open releasing the parasites to infect other cells

疟原虫分裂成2个个体,周围是红细胞,其中一个疟原虫已经破裂释放繁殖子影响其它细胞


First line of defense agains armies of dangerous microorganisms, skin tissue is able to mend itself rapidly after injury.

对抗微生物的第一防线,皮肤组织受伤之后可以迅速修复。


First step in phagocytosis, or “cell eating” a macrophage extends several pseudopods from it’s singlecelled form to embrace a number of E-coli bacteria

吞噬的第一步,巨噬细胞伸展伪足包围大肠杆菌


Bacteria trapped within an extension of a macrophage membrane

细菌被巨噬细胞延伸的细胞膜捕获


Powerful chemicals inside the macrophage will breakdown and destroy the components of invading cells.

巨噬细胞分泌酶和过氧化物分解吞噬入侵细胞


Like a vision from science fiction, a macrophage reaches out to ensnare bacteria with a cellular extension called a pseudopod.

巨噬细胞伸展伪足捕捉细菌


One of mankind’s greatest inorganic threats, asbestos fibres are engulfed by a macrophage which will probably die from it’s indigestible meal.

巨噬细胞吞噬石棉纤维导致自身死亡


mutiny in the body is a constant occurrence, many believe, as healthy cells somehow escape the mechanisms that regulate cell growth and turn cancerous. Fortunately, antigens on their surfaces sometimes alter slightly, changing from self to non-self. Thus the cells become targets for Killer T-cells, like these surrounding this large cancer cell.

一些正常细胞脱离正常生长机制发生癌变,这些癌变细胞便成了细胞毒性t细胞(淋巴细胞)的猎物


Frozen in action, killer T cells appear remarkably alive as they attack a cancer cell. Several of the normally round T-cells acquire the elongated shape of active fighters as they subject their target to chemical attack, breaking down the cell membrane.

几个圆形的细胞毒性t细胞伸长形体,利用穿孔素等化学物质破坏细胞膜,并释放酶杀死病变细胞


After a cancer cell loses it’s cytoplasm, only a fibrous skelleton is left, here surrounding a T-cell.

癌细胞丧失了细胞质,只剩余纤维骨架,图中有一个细胞毒性t细胞


Overzealous immune responses, allergic reactions plague humans who produce certain unnecessary antibodies.

过度免疫反应,过敏反应激发人体产生不必要的抗体 造成麻烦


A renegade immune system has ravaged a (surgically removed) femur of a 50 year old women suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis. Most common of al the autoimmune disorders.

自体免疫障碍导致免疫系统攻击关节的慢性疾病(类风湿性关节炎),是一种最常见的自体免疫性疾病,图为被免疫系统攻击坏死的股骨头


The common cold virus, constantly mutates to avoid detection. Just how totally viruses can overcome a healthy host is seen when an infected human cell ruptures, releasing a stream of new viruses (blue) into the system.

感冒病毒不断变异来规避免疫系统,图为人体细胞破裂释放出新的病毒(蓝色)。



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